Scenario planning is not a recent invention.

The genesis of this essential decision-making tool dates back to the times of the Cold War, where it played a pivotal role in military strategy, which is known as ‘War Gaming’. It has now transcended its military origins to become a vital part of modern business strategy, where it serves as a robust technique for anticipating potential crises and enhancing organizational resilience. This blog aims to explore this transformation, highlighting some notable instances where scenario planning helped businesses circumvent obstacles and maintain operational continuity.

War Gaming: The Origin

The practice of war gaming, indeed, has even deeper historical roots. It was the Prussian military that first conceptualized war gaming, or ‘Kriegsspiel’, in the early 19th century. Designed to provide a realistic simulation of battlefield conditions, these games allowed officers to practice strategic thinking and decision-making without the risks of actual combat. The Prussian army used wooden blocks to represent military forces on a map, and detailed rules governed how these forces could move and fight. These games were instrumental in Prussia’s military successes during the 19th century, and their influence laid the groundwork for modern war gaming and scenario planning, concepts that continue to shape military and business strategies today.

Related: Corporate Wargames – Lessons 5 & 6

In the Cold War period, the US military used war gaming to test various possible outcomes and to develop sophisticated strategies to address the threat of nuclear conflict. Through simulation of realistic situations and potential responses, military strategists could predict the consequences of specific decisions in different scenarios, allowing them to pre-emptively shape tactics and countermeasures.

The goal was not to predict the future accurately but to create a variety of plausible futures and consider the best response strategies for each. This foresight allowed the military to anticipate potential crises and to adapt swiftly when the expected unexpected occurred.

From War Rooms to Boardrooms

Since its inception in the world of military strategy, scenario planning has been adopted in the corporate world as an effective tool for strategic planning and crisis management. It allows businesses to envision multiple futures and analyze the implications of various strategic options. By envisaging a range of plausible scenarios, organizations can assess their potential vulnerabilities, devise mitigation strategies, and enhance their overall resilience.

Over time, the value of scenario planning and the principles of war gaming began to transcend their initial military confines, permeating the world of business. Businesses recognized the value of anticipating potential roadblocks and preparing for them well in advance, just like military strategists.

In the corporate context, scenario planning involves the creation of detailed, plausible narratives about the future, encompassing a wide range of external factors like market dynamics, regulatory changes, competitor behavior, and technological advancements. These narratives are not mere predictions, but rather a spectrum of possible futures. Each story is then associated with distinct strategic implications, giving rise to a well-rounded, dynamic approach to planning that covers numerous potential realities.

By envisioning a variety of possible future states, scenario planning aids companies in testing the robustness of their strategic plans against multiple eventualities. This methodology allows for the identification of potential vulnerabilities and blind spots, encouraging the development of pre-emptive strategies and decision-making guidelines that enhance a company’s adaptive capability.

Moreover, these scenarios are not fixed but evolve with the changing external environment, reflecting a shift from traditional static strategic planning to a more dynamic, responsive approach. This way, companies do not just react to changes; they can proactively shape their future, making scenario planning a transformative tool for innovation and strategic leadership.

Royal Dutch Shell: A Success Story

Royal Dutch Shell provides a prominent example of successful scenario planning. During the oil crisis of the 1970s, the company’s far-sighted scenario planning teams had considered the possibility of a significant increase in oil prices. As a result, they were better prepared to navigate the crisis than their competitors.

When oil prices quadrupled in 1973 due to OPEC’s oil embargo, companies worldwide faced tremendous operational and financial challenges. However, Royal Dutch Shell, armed with well-formulated strategies based on their scenarios, was able to quickly adapt and secure a competitive advantage. The company moved from being the eighth largest oil company to the second in just a few years.

More about Shell’s scenario planning –

Scenario Planning Today: A Resilience-Building Tool for Crisis Management

In today’s hyper-connected and rapidly evolving world, scenario planning is proving to be an increasingly crucial tool for crisis management. The landscape of the 21st century is characterized by unprecedented volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA), making it imperative for organizations to possess the ability to adapt and respond effectively to potential crises.

Whether it is a global health crisis, an environmental disaster, technological disruption, or geopolitical shifts, each potential crisis poses a unique set of challenges to businesses. By utilizing scenario planning, organizations can visualize these varying crises and their potential implications, and subsequently, devise appropriate response mechanisms.

Consider the example of the COVID-19 pandemic. Businesses worldwide were able to employ scenario planning to navigate this novel and complex crisis. They built a spectrum of possible scenarios ranging from a brief, localized outbreak to a prolonged, worldwide pandemic. These scenarios allowed organizations to consider the implications of each potential future, thereby enabling them to make informed decisions about their strategic responses. This approach equipped organizations to not only protect their bottom lines but also safeguard their employees, stakeholders, and communities in which they operate.

The utility of scenario planning extends beyond immediate crisis response. In the post-crisis period, scenario planning allows organizations to capitalize on the lessons learned and adapt their strategies to new market realities. Thus, companies can proactively shape their future trajectory rather than passively reacting to changing circumstances.

In essence, scenario planning today serves as a resilience-building tool, aiding organizations in effectively managing crises and in strengthening their long-term strategic positioning. As the business landscape continues to evolve, this method will undoubtedly remain an integral part of business continuity planning and strategic management.


From its historical roots in military strategy, scenario planning has emerged as an indispensable tool for businesses navigating an increasingly uncertain world. The inherent unpredictability of today’s business landscape underscores the value of this method. By preparing for a range of plausible futures, organizations can enhance their resilience, ensuring they are ready to meet whatever challenges the future holds.

As we face a future marked by rapid technological change, environmental challenges, and unpredictable socio-political shifts, scenario planning’s role in successful business strategy cannot be overstated. Through proactive anticipation and strategic flexibility, organizations can turn potential crises into opportunities, ensuring their long-term survival and success.

Rob Burton
Rob Burton

Rob is a Principal at PreparedEx where he manages a team of crisis preparedness professionals and has over 20 years of experience preparing for and responding to crises. Part of his leadership role includes assisting PreparedEx clients in designing, implementing and evaluating crisis, emergency, security and business continuity management programs. During his career Rob has worked for the US State Department’s Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program, as a crisis management consultant in Pakistan and Afghanistan where he negotiated with the UN and Pashtun tribal warlords and he served with the United Kingdom Special Forces where he operated internationally under hazardous covert and confidential conditions. Rob was also part of a disciplined and prestigious unit The Grenadier Guards where he served Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at the Royal Palaces in London. Rob was a highly trained and experienced infantryman serving in Desert Storm and commanded covert operational teams and was a sniper. Rob has keynoted disaster recovery conferences and participated in live debates on FOX News regarding complex security requirements and terrorism. Rob has a Queen’s Commendation for Bravery.