In today’s rapidly changing world, hospitals and healthcare facilities face an ever-increasing range of challenges, from natural disasters to public health crises.

To effectively respond to these emergencies, hospitals must have robust emergency management plans in place. One valuable tool in this arsenal is the Emergency Action Plan (EAP), which outlines the procedures and protocols for responding to various emergency scenarios. 

While developing an EAP is a crucial first step, its effectiveness can only be truly tested through practical application and evaluation. This is where tabletop exercises come into play. In this blog post, we will explore the critical components of an EAP, the importance of different types of emergency response plans, the four main steps of an EAP, and how tabletop exercises can be used to enhance preparedness. 

Section 1: What is an Emergency Action Plan?  

An Emergency Action Plan, or EAP, is a comprehensive document that outlines the steps and procedures a hospital or healthcare facility should take in response to a variety of emergency scenarios. These plans serve as a roadmap for hospital staff to ensure a coordinated and effective response when disaster strikes. 

An effective EAP should include the following seven key elements: 

  1. Risk Assessment: Identifying potential hazards and assessing their impact on the facility. 
  1. Communication Plan: Establishing clear lines of communication within the organization and with external stakeholders. 
  1. Resource Management: Allocating resources such as personnel, equipment, and supplies. 
  1. Response Procedures: Detailing specific actions to be taken during an emergency, from evacuation to medical treatment. 
  1. Training and Drills: Providing ongoing training to staff and conducting regular drills to ensure readiness. 
  1. Coordination with Authorities: Establishing relationships and protocols for working with local emergency services and authorities. 
  1. Review and Revision: Continuously reviewing and updating the plan to reflect changes in the facility and its surroundings. 

Section 2: Types of Emergency Response Plans  

Hospitals require a range of emergency response plans to address different types of threats and scenarios. Here are five main types of emergency response plans applicable to hospitals: 

  1. Natural Disasters: Plans for responding to events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and wildfires. 
  1. Pandemic Response: Protocols for managing the healthcare facility during infectious disease outbreaks. 
  1. Mass Casualty Incidents: Plans to handle a sudden influx of patients due to accidents, terrorist attacks, or other emergencies. 
  1. Utility Failures: Procedures to maintain operations during power outages, water supply disruptions, or other utility failures. 
  1. Cybersecurity Threats: Plans for safeguarding sensitive patient information and maintaining critical healthcare functions during cyberattacks. 

Each of these plans should be tailored to the specific needs and vulnerabilities of the hospital. 

Related: Navigating HIPAA Compliance in Healthcare Training: A Tabletop Exercise Guide

Section 3: The Four Main Steps of an Emergency Action Plan  

An EAP typically follows a four-step process: 

  1. Prevention: The first step involves identifying potential hazards and taking proactive measures to mitigate their impact. This includes conducting risk assessments, implementing security measures, and ensuring staff are trained in preventive measures. 
  1. Preparedness: In this phase, the hospital creates a comprehensive EAP, trains staff, and conducts tabletop exercises and drills to ensure everyone understands their roles and responsibilities in an emergency. 
  1. Response: When an emergency occurs, the EAP outlines the specific actions to be taken. This includes evacuation procedures, medical treatment protocols, and communication plans to keep staff and patients informed. 
  1. Recovery: After the immediate crisis has been managed, the hospital focuses on recovery efforts. This may involve rebuilding infrastructure, addressing the psychological needs of staff and patients, and evaluating the response to make improvements. 

Section 4: Components of an Emergency Action Plan  

To be effective, an EAP should include six key components: 

  1. Risk Assessment: Begin by identifying potential hazards and assessing their impact on the hospital. This step lays the foundation for the entire plan. 
  1. Communication Plan: Clear and effective communication is crucial during an emergency. The EAP should outline communication channels, contacts, and procedures for disseminating information. 
  1. Resource Management: Allocate resources efficiently by listing critical equipment, supplies, and personnel needed for various emergency scenarios. 
  1. Response Procedures: Provide detailed, step-by-step procedures for staff to follow during an emergency. This includes evacuation plans, medical treatment protocols, and incident command structures. 
  1. Training and Drills: Regular training and exercises are essential to ensure that staff are prepared and can respond effectively during a crisis. 
  1. Coordination with Authorities: Establish relationships and protocols for working with local emergency services, government agencies, and other healthcare facilities. 

By integrating these components into the EAP, hospitals can improve their preparedness and response capabilities. 

Section 5: The Three C’s of an Emergency Action Plan  

Effective emergency response plans are guided by the Three C’s: Communication, Coordination, and Collaboration. 

  1. Communication: Clear and timely communication is the foundation of any successful emergency response. Ensure that staff understand how to communicate during an emergency, both within the hospital and with external partners. 
  1. Coordination: Coordinating efforts across different departments and agencies is critical. The EAP should outline roles and responsibilities to avoid confusion during a crisis. 
  1. Collaboration: Collaboration extends beyond the hospital’s walls. Work closely with local authorities, neighboring healthcare facilities, and other stakeholders to ensure a unified response. 

These three principles should be woven into the fabric of the EAP to foster a seamless response to emergencies. 

Resource: Principles of Simulation Exercises – Online Training

Section 6: Ten Essential Components of an Emergency Action Plan  

  1. To ensure that your EAP is comprehensive and effective, consider including these ten essential components: 
  1. Executive Summary: A concise overview of the plan for quick reference. 
  1. Scope and Objectives: Clearly defined goals and the scope of the plan. 
  1. Emergency Contacts: A list of key personnel and external contacts. 
  1. Hazards and Vulnerabilities: A detailed assessment of potential threats. 
  1. Response Procedures: Step-by-step instructions for different scenarios. 
  1. Communication Plan: Protocols for internal and external communication. 
  1. Resource Inventory: A list of essential equipment, supplies, and personnel. 
  1. Evacuation Plan: Maps and procedures for evacuating the facility. 
  1. Training and Drills: Schedules and details of training exercises. 
  1. Appendices: Additional resources, forms, and checklists. 

By incorporating these components, hospitals can create a comprehensive and actionable EAP. 

Section 7: Using Tabletop Exercises for EAP Evaluation  

Tabletop exercises are a valuable tool for evaluating and refining an EAP. These exercises simulate emergency scenarios in a controlled environment, allowing hospital staff to test their response procedures, communication protocols, and coordination. 

Tabletop exercises offer several benefits, including: 

  • Training: Staff become familiar with their roles and responsibilities. 
  • Teamwork: Collaboration and coordination are practiced and improved. 
  • Weakness Identification: Gaps and weaknesses in the EAP can be identified and addressed. 
  • Realistic Scenarios: Hospitals can simulate realistic emergency scenarios to better prepare for actual events. 

By conducting tabletop exercises regularly and using them as a feedback mechanism, hospitals can continuously enhance their EAPs and overall preparedness. 


In today’s healthcare landscape, the need for effective emergency management in hospitals cannot be overstated. Hospital Emergency Action Plans serve as the backbone of preparedness, providing a roadmap to navigate through challenging times. 

By understanding the critical components of an EAP, the types of emergency response plans needed, and the importance of tabletop exercises, hospitals can take proactive steps to enhance their emergency preparedness. It’s not just about having a plan on paper; it’s about practicing and refining that plan to ensure the safety and well-being of patients, staff, and the community. 

As hospitals face an ever-evolving array of challenges, the commitment to preparedness and the dedication to continuous improvement are the keys to ensuring that they can respond effectively to any emergency that arises. 

Rob Burton
Rob Burton

Rob is a Principal at PreparedEx where he manages a team of crisis preparedness professionals and has over 20 years of experience preparing for and responding to crises. Part of his leadership role includes assisting PreparedEx clients in designing, implementing and evaluating crisis, emergency, security and business continuity management programs. During his career Rob has worked for the US State Department’s Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program, as a crisis management consultant in Pakistan and Afghanistan where he negotiated with the UN and Pashtun tribal warlords and he served with the United Kingdom Special Forces where he operated internationally under hazardous covert and confidential conditions. Rob was also part of a disciplined and prestigious unit The Grenadier Guards where he served Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at the Royal Palaces in London. Rob was a highly trained and experienced infantryman serving in Desert Storm and commanded covert operational teams and was a sniper. Rob has keynoted disaster recovery conferences and participated in live debates on FOX News regarding complex security requirements and terrorism. Rob has a Queen’s Commendation for Bravery.